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Another type of social response, which does not involve conformity with the majority of the group, is called convergence. [25], Stanley Milgram found that individuals in Norway (from a collectivistic culture) exhibited a higher degree of conformity than individuals in France (from an individualistic culture). According to Donelson Forsyth, after submitting to group pressures, individuals may find themselves facing one of several responses to conformity. Milgram also conducted the same experiment once more, but told participants that the results of the study would be applied to the design of aircraft safety signals. The experiment was modified to examine this question. Examining conformity in in-groups and the reference-group effect. What Is Conformity And Obedience Psychology Essay. There are various types of social influence, some more subtle than others. Immediacy is how close the group is in time and space when the influence is taking place. This is known as minority influence, a special case of informational influence. Although Kelman's distinction has been influential, research in social psychology has focused primarily on two varieties of conformity. (3) Point: The study can be criticised on ethical grounds for deceiving the participants. The more knowledgeable a person is, the more valuable they are as a resource. Solomon Asch did the most famous conformity experiment in 1951. Conformity is the act of matching attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors to group norms, politics or being like minded. In conclusion, Asch and his line study has proven that if you have a majority who agree with their answer this could cause others to change theirs without realising, or even doubt there judgeability when it is clear to see that the majority are wrong. Our academic experts are ready and waiting to assist with any writing project you may have. Asch also discovered that seventy-two percent of the participants conformed once. [1] Norms are implicit, specific rules, shared by a group of individuals, that guide their interactions with others. Social psychology looks at how people influence and are influenced by others. Zimbardo devised a laboratory experiment and converted a basement in the psychology department at Stanford University into a mock prison, with barred doors, windows, bare walls and small cells. For Deutsch and Gérard (1955), conformity results from a motivational conflict (between the fear of being socially rejected and the wish to say what we think is correct) that leads to the normative influence, and a cognitive conflict (others create doubts in what we think) which leads to the informational influence. David Myers (1999) described conformity as a change in an individual’s belief or behaviour because of real (involving the physical presence of others) or imagined (involving the pressure of social norms/expectations) group pressure. (Cardwell et al, 2000), Conformity is used to show an agreement to the majority, brought on by a wish to fit in, or be liked. This is a basis for society, culture and community as it helps people to get along and align their efforts. This is not an example of the work produced by our Essay Writing Service. Stanley Milgram's study demonstrated that Asch's study could be replicated with other stimuli, and that in the case of tones, there was a high degree of conformity. For example, a popular experiment in conformity research, known as the Asch situation or Asch conformity experiments, primarily includes compliance and independence. The prisoners were arrested at their homes without warning and taken to their local police station; they were treated just like any other criminal. However, there were no gender differences in conformity among participants who were under 19 years of age and in surveillance conditions. On the first day, each person perceived different amounts of movement, but from the second to the fourth day, the same estimate was agreed on and others conformed to it. I practically considered the prisoners cattle and I kept thinking I had to watch out for them in case they tried something.” Another guard said, “Acting authoritatively can be fun. Zimbardo maintained contact with the participants during the year after the experiment ended to help with the persistence of any negative effects. In a subsequent research article, Eagly suggests that women are more likely to conform than men because of lower status roles of women in society. (Cardwell et al, 2000). [40] They argued that because stereotypes used in studies are generally male ones (sports, cars..) more than female ones (cooking, fashion..), women are feeling uncertain and conformed more, which was confirmed by their results. Psychologist Philip Zimbardo wanted to see if this was due to the guard’s sadistic nature or the prison itself. *You can also browse our support articles here >. The guards made the rules with the exception of one, no physical violence. Minority influence is most likely when people can make a clear and consistent case for their point of view. In the same way that gender has been viewed as corresponding to status, age has also been argued to have status implications. The true (naïve) participant was always the last or last but one to answer.

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